Euthanasia (physician assisted death) which originally means a good death, recently interpreted as actions to hasten death. It is important to understand the meaning of euthanasia itself before being assessed ethically and morally. Therefore, it would be seen by the sense of euthanasia Code of Medical Ethics Indonesia using euthanasia in three senses:
1. The shift in to the afterlife with a calm and secure without suffering, for the faithful with God’s name on the lips.
2. The life time will end, alleviated the suffering of the sick by giving a sedative.
3. End the suffering and pain of living a deliberate upon request of the patient himself and his family.
According to the Code of Ethics for the duty of the doctors to patients, it is mentioned that a doctor should keep in mind their obligation to protect the lives of human beings. This means that according to medical ethics, doctors are not allowed to terminate the life of a sick though according to my knowledge and experience will not recover again.
But if the patient has been ascertained suffered brain stem death or loss of brain function at all, then the patient as a whole is dead although her ??heart was still beating. Cessation of therapeutic actions should be decided by an experienced practitioner who experienced the cases as a whole and it is best done after consultations with experienced doctors, but must also consider the patient’s wishes, ancestry patient, and the best quality of life is expected. thus, the basic moral ethics to perform euthanasia is shorten or end the suffering of the patient and not the end the patient’s life.
Classification of Euthanasia, the most practical and easy to understand is:
Active euthanasia(physician assisted death), acts intentionally performed by a physician or other health professionals to shorten or end a patient’s life. It is prohibited, except in countries that have allowed it through legislation.
Passive euthanasia, physician or other health personnel intentionally not (anymore) to provide medical assistance that can prolong the patient’s life, such as stopping the infusion, the food through the sonde, breathing aids, or delay surgery.
Auto euthanasia, seorang patient knowingly refuses expressly to receive medical treatment and he knows that this will shorten or terminate life. With the rejection he made ??a codicil (hand written statement). Auto euthanasia is essentially passive euthanasia on demand.
The terms of the law, the Book of Criminal Law legislation set someone can be convicted or punished if he take the life of another person intentionally or due to carelessness. Conditions criminal violations directly related to active euthanasia contained in Article 344 Criminal Code.
Article 344 Penal Code:
Whoever eliminates the life of another person at the request of the person himself, he called a real and earnest, was jailed for twelve-year-old.This provision should keep in mind the medical community because although there are some compelling reasons to help the patient or the patient’s family life terminate or shorten the patient’s life, it had to face the threat of punishment.
For this kind of active and passive euthanasia without request, several articles below need to be known by doctors, namely:
Article 338 of the Criminal Code:
Whoever deliberately eliminating the lives of others, convicted of treason to death, the prison forever fifteen years.
Article 340 of the Criminal Code:
Whoever deliberately planned in advance and eliminate the life of another person, convicted, because premeditated murder (moord) with the death penalty or a prison forever for life or imprisonment for ever twenty years.
Article 359 of the Criminal Code:
Anyone who due to his fault caused the death of people sentenced to prison forever five years or jail forever one year.
Furthermore, under this proposed law is reminiscent of a medical circles to be cautious of cases of euthanasia, namely:
Article 345 Penal Code:
Whoever intentionally fatherly inciting others to kill himself, to help him in the act, or give it power be a suicide attempt, was jailed for four-year-old.
If you notice the sound of the articles on crimes against human life in the Criminal Code, then can we understand how actually the legislators at the time (the time of the Dutch East Indies) have assumed that human life as his most precious possession. Therefore every motive and any action that stuff all such actions threaten the security and safety of human life, then it is considered as a major crime by the state.
In the European Union, euthanasia and physician assisted death is legal under definite conditions in Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium.
Further Reading: Is physician assisted killing good?